tsarin sakamako

Sakamako System

Don fahimtar dalilin da yasa abinci mai dadi, ƙauna mai ƙauna, sha'awar jima'i, barasa, heroin, hotuna, cakulan, caca, kafofin watsa labarun ko shafukan yanar gizo, muna bukatar mu san game da tsarin sakamako.

The tsarin sakamako yana daya daga cikin mafi muhimmanci tsarin a kwakwalwa. Yana tafiyar da halinmu ga abubuwan da suka dace kamar abinci, jima'i, barasa, da dai sauransu. Kuma yana motsa mu daga masu zafi (rikici, aikin gida, da dai sauransu) wanda ke buƙatar karin makamashi ko ƙoƙari. A nan ne muke jin motsin zuciyarmu da kuma aiwatar da waɗannan motsin zuciyarmu don fara ko dakatar da aiki. Ya ƙunshi rukuni na tsarin kwakwalwa a tsakiya na kwakwalwa. Suna yin la'akari ko za su sake maimaita hali ko kuma su kasance al'ada. Kyauta ita ce motsawa wanda ke motsa sha'awar canza halin. Kyauta yawanci suna zama masu ƙarfafawa. Wato, sun sa mu sake dabi'un da muka fahimta (ba tare da fahimta) ba don kyautata rayuwarmu, koda kuwa ba haka ba ne. Ƙaunata ita ce kyauta mafi kyau ko abin da ya fi ƙarfin jin dadi fiye da zafi don motsa jiki. Kyakkyawan karami ne mafi kyau fiye da itace.

A Striatum

A tsakiyar tsarin ladabi shine striatum. Yankin kwakwalwa ne wanda ke haifar da jinin lada ko jin dadi. Ayyukan aiki, ƙwararren yana daidaita nau'o'in nau'i na tunani wanda zai taimake mu mu yanke shawarar. Wadannan sun haɗa da motsi da tsara aikin, dalili, ƙarfafawa, da fahimtar sakamako. A nan ne kwakwalwa ta ƙaddamar da darajar wani motsa jiki a cikin wani nanosecond, aika 'tafi don' ko 'tsayawa' sigina. Wannan ɓangare na kwakwalwa yana canjawa da hankali saboda sakamakon lalacewa ko maganin zalunci. Abubuwan da suka zama zurfi sune nau'i na 'ilmantarwa', wanda ke da ilmantarwa.

Wannan babban maganganun TED ne akan batun Hanya Ta Yarda.

Matsayin Juyin Halitta

Menene muhimmancin dopamine? Dopamine ne neurochemical wanda ke haifar da aiki a cikin kwakwalwa. Abin da tsarin tsarin sakamako ke aiki. Yana da ayyuka daban-daban. Dopamine ita ce 'go-get-it' neurochemical da ke motsa mu ga fitina ko sakamako da kuma halin da muke bukata domin rayuwa. Misalan abinci ne, jima'i, haɗin kai, kauce wa zafi da dai sauransu. Har ila yau alama ce ta sa mu matsa. Alal misali, mutanen da ke fama da cutar Parkinson ba su aiwatar da cikakken bayani ba. Wannan ya nuna a matsayin haɗari masu rikici. Komawa da yawa na dopamine 'ƙarfafa' hanyoyi masu zurfi don sa mu so mu sake maimaita hali. Yana da muhimmiyar hanyar yadda za mu koyi wani abu.

An daidaita sosai cikin kwakwalwa. Babban ka'idar game da batun dopamin shine haɗari-salience ka'idar. Yana da game da so, ba mai son. Jin jin dadin kansa ya fito ne daga halittun halitta a cikin kwakwalwa wanda ke haifar da jin dadi ko babban. Dopamine da opioids aiki tare. Mutanen da ke da maganin kimiyya suna nuna cewa suna da kariyar dopamine kuma wannan zai haifar da haɗari da hauka da kuma motsin zuciyarmu. Ka yi tunanin Goldilocks. Balance. Binciken abinci, barasa, kwayoyi, batsa da sauransu yana ƙarfafa waɗannan hanyoyi kuma zai iya haifar da jaraba a wasu.

Dopamine da Farin Jiki

Adadin dopamin da kwakwalwar da aka saki ta kafin yin halayya yana da matukar dacewa da damar da zai iya samar da jin dadi. Idan muka sami jin dadi tare da abu ko aiki, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya tana nufin muna fatan cewa zai zama abin jin dadi. Idan motsawar ta rushe makomarmu - ya fi jin dadi ko žasa da jin dadi - za mu samar da karin kwayoyi fiye da žasa a daidai lokacin da muke haɗuwa da motsawar. Drugs hijack da tsarin sakamako kuma samar da mafi girma na matakin dopamine kuma opioids da farko. Bayan lokaci da kwakwalwar take amfani da shi don motsa jiki, don haka yana buƙatar karin ciwon dopamine don samun babban. Tare da kwayoyi, mai amfani yana buƙatar maɗaukaki iri ɗaya, amma tare da batsa azaman motsa jiki, kwakwalwa yana buƙatar sabon abu, daban-daban kuma mafi ban mamaki ko mamaki don samun ɗaukaka.

Mai amfani yana bin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da kwarewa ta farko, amma yawanci yana ƙare. Ba zan iya samun wani ... .satisfaction. Mai amfani yana iya, bayan wani lokaci, 'buƙata' batsa ko barasa ko cigare, ya zama shugaban jin zafi da ƙananan kwayoyin cutar da ƙananan cututtuka suka haifar. Saboda haka mawuyacin yunkuri na dogara. A cikin mutumin da ke da amfani mai amfani ko kuma hali na hali, da 'yunkuri' don amfani da shi, ta hanyar yada kwayoyin dopamine, zai iya jin kamar rayuwar rayuwa ko mutuwa 'rayuwa ta rayuwa da kuma haifar da yanke shawarar yanke hukunci sosai don dakatar da jin zafi.

Babban Madogarar Magani

Babban tushen dopamine a cikin wannan tsakiyar kwakwalwa (striatum) ana haifar da shi a cikin ƙananan yanki (VTA). Daga nan sai ya shiga mahimmanci (NAcc), cibiyar ladabi, ta hanyar mayar da hankali ga kwarewa / tsinkaya / jirage na sakamako, yana ɗorawa mai faɗakarwa don aiki. Wani mataki na gaba - aikin motar / motsi, wanda aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar siginar motsa jiki 'tafi da shi,' ko alama mai hanawa, kamar "dakatarwa", za a ƙaddara ta hanyar sigina daga cortex na farko idan ya aiwatar da bayanin. Da kari dopamine akwai a cikin gidan lada, yawancin abin da ake ji dadi shine a matsayin sakamako. Mutanen da ke cikin halayyar halayyar halayya, ko ƙwarewa, suna samar da wata sigina daga magungunan farko don hana buƙata ko aiki mai ban sha'awa.

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