tsarin sakamako

Sakamako System

Don fahimtar dalilin da yasa abinci mai dadi, ƙauna mai ƙauna, sha'awar jima'i, barasa, heroin, hotuna, cakulan, caca, kafofin watsa labarun ko shafukan yanar gizo, muna bukatar mu san game da tsarin sakamako.

The tsarin sakamako yana daya daga cikin mahimman tsarin a kwakwalwa. Yana tafiyar da halayyarmu zuwa ga abubuwan jin dadi kamar abinci, jima'i, giya, da sauransu. Kuma yana kore mu daga masu zafi (rikice-rikice, aikin gida, da sauransu) waɗanda ke buƙatar ƙarin ƙarfi ko ƙoƙari. A nan ne muke jin motsin rai kuma mu aiwatar da waɗannan motsin zuciyar don farawa ko dakatar da aiki. Ya kunshi rukuni na tsarin kwakwalwa a tsakiyar kwakwalwa. Sun auna ko don maimaita ɗabi'a da ƙirƙirar al'ada. Lada kyauta ne mai motsawa wanda ke motsa sha'awar canza yanayin. Ladan sakamako galibi suna zama masu ƙarfafawa. Wato, suna sanya mu maimaita halayen da muka hango (sume) masu kyau ne don rayuwarmu, koda kuwa basu kasance ba. Jin daɗi shine mafi kyawun sakamako ko motsa jiki fiye da zafi don motsa hali. Karas ya fi sanda da dai sauransu.

A Striatum

A tsakiyar tsarin ladabi shine striatum. Yankin kwakwalwa ne ke haifar da jin daɗi ko jin daɗi. Aiki, ma'aunin yana daidaita bangarori da yawa na tunani wanda zai taimaka mana yanke shawara. Waɗannan sun haɗa da motsi da tsara ayyuka, motsawa, ƙarfafawa, da fahimtar sakamako. A nan ne kwakwalwa ke ɗaukar darajar abin motsawa a cikin nanosecond, aika sakonnin 'tafi da shi' ko 'nisanci' sigina. Wannan ɓangaren ƙwaƙwalwar yana canzawa sosai sakamakon ɗabi'a mai haɗari ko rikicewar maye. Dabi'un da suka zama masu zurfin ciki wani nau'i ne na ilmantarwa na 'cuta', wannan ba shi da iko.

Wannan babban maganganun TED ne akan batun Hanya Ta Yarda.

Matsayin Juyin Halitta

Menene muhimmancin dopamine? Dopamine wani ƙwayar cuta ne wanda ke haifar da aiki a cikin kwakwalwa. Abinda tsarin lada yake aiki dashi. Yana da ayyuka daban-daban. Dopamine shine 'go-get-it' neurochemical wanda ke tura mu ga matsaloli ko lada da halayen da muke buƙata don rayuwa. Misalai sune abinci, jima'i, haɗuwa, guje wa ciwo da dai sauransu Hakanan alama ce da ke sa mu motsa. Misali, mutanen da ke fama da cutar Parkinson ba sa sarrafa kwayar cutar ta dopamine. Wannan yana nunawa kamar motsawar motsa jiki. Maimaita rikice-rikice na dopamine 'ƙarfafa' hanyoyin hanyoyi don sa mu so maimaita hali. Babban mahimmin abu ne a cikin yadda muke koyon komai.

An daidaita shi sosai a kwakwalwa. Babban ka'idar game da rawar dopamine shine haɗari-salience ka'idar. Labari ne game da so, ba so ba. Jin dadin kansa yana zuwa ne daga opioids na halitta a cikin kwakwalwa wanda ke haifar da jin daɗi ko ɗaukaka. Dopamine da opioids suna aiki tare. Mutanen da ke da cutar schizophrenia suna da yawan fitar dopamine kuma wannan na iya haifar da guguwar tunani da matsanancin motsin rai. Yi tunanin Goldilocks. Daidaita. Binging akan abinci, barasa, kwayoyi, batsa da sauransu yana ƙarfafa waɗancan hanyoyin kuma yana iya haifar da jaraba a cikin wasu.

Dopamine da Farin Jiki

Adadin dopamin da kwakwalwar da aka saki ta kafin yin halayya yana da matukar dacewa da damar da zai iya samar da jin dadi. Idan muka sami jin dadi tare da abu ko aiki, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya tana nufin muna fatan cewa zai zama abin jin dadi. Idan motsawar ta rushe makomarmu - ya fi jin dadi ko žasa da jin dadi - za mu samar da karin kwayoyi fiye da žasa a daidai lokacin da muke haɗuwa da motsawar. Drugs hijack da tsarin sakamako kuma samar da mafi girma na matakin dopamine kuma opioids da farko. Bayan lokaci da kwakwalwar take amfani da shi don motsa jiki, don haka yana buƙatar karin ciwon dopamine don samun babban. Tare da kwayoyi, mai amfani yana buƙatar maɗaukaki iri ɗaya, amma tare da batsa azaman motsa jiki, kwakwalwa yana buƙatar sabon abu, daban-daban kuma mafi ban mamaki ko mamaki don samun ɗaukaka.

Mai amfani koyaushe yana bin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da ƙwarewar farkon euphoric high, amma yawanci yakan ƙare da cizon yatsa. Ba zan iya samun… ba. Hakanan mai amfani zai iya, bayan lokaci, 'buƙatar' batsa ko giya ko sigari, don kasancewa kan baƙin cikin da ƙarancin dopamine da alamun janyewar damuwa ke haifarwa. Saboda haka mummunan yanayin dogaro. A cikin mutumin da ke amfani da abu ko dogaro da ɗabi'a, 'buƙatar' yin amfani da shi, sanadiyyar jujjuyawar matakan dopamine, na iya jin kamar rayuwar 'rayuwa ko mutuwa' na buƙata kuma yana haifar da yanke shawara mara kyau kawai don dakatar da ciwo.

Babban Madogarar Magani

Babban tushen dopamine a cikin wannan tsakiyar kwakwalwa (striatum) ana samar dashi a cikin ƙananan ƙananan yanki (VTA). Daga nan sai ya tafi ga ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta (NAcc), cibiyar lada, saboda martani / gani / tsammanin ladan, ɗora abin da aka shirya don aiki. Aiki na gaba - motsa jiki / motsi, wanda aka kunna ta sigina mai motsawa 'je ka samu,' ko sigina mai hanawa, kamar 'dakatarwa', za a ƙaddara shi da sigina daga maɓallin farko da zarar ya sarrafa bayanin. Thearin yawan dopamine a cikin cibiyar lada, ƙwarewar motsa jiki ana jin azaman sakamako. Mutanen da ke da rikicewar halayyar ɗabi'a, ko ƙari, suna haifar da sigina mai rauni daga cortex na farko don hana sha'awar ko aikin hanzari.

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