Juyin Halitta na kwakwalwa

Juyin Halitta na kwakwalwa

Ofayan sanannun samfuran da za'a iya amfani dasu don fahimtar tsarin kwakwalwa shine haɓakar juyin halitta ta ƙirar kwakwalwa. Wannan masanin neuroscient Paul MacLean ne ya haɓaka kuma ya zama mai tasiri sosai a cikin 1960s. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata tun da, duk da haka, abubuwa da yawa na wannan samfurin dole ne a sake yin la'akari da su game da binciken neuroanatomical na kwanan nan. Har yanzu yana da amfani don fahimtar aikin kwakwalwa gaba ɗaya. Misalin asali na MacLean ya banbanta kwakwalwa daban-daban guda uku waɗanda suka bayyana a gaba yayin juyin halitta. Wannan gajeren bidiyon ta babban masanin kimiyyar halittu Robert Sapolsky yayi bayani game da kwatankwacin kwakwalwar. Ga wani gajeren bidiyon ta likitan kwakwalwa da likitan kwakwalwa Dr Dan Siegel tare da samfurin 'sa mai sauki' na kwakwalwa yana bayanin wannan ra'ayi ta hanya mai sauki da za'a iya tunawa kuma. Don ƙarin bayyani na ɓangarorin kwakwalwa da ayyukanta, kalli wannan minti 5 video.

Brain Reptilian

Wannan shi ne mafi ɓangare na kwakwalwa. An fara game da shekaru 400 shekaru da suka wuce. Ya ƙunshi manyan sassan da aka samo a cikin kwakwalwar kwakwalwa: kwakwalwar kwakwalwa da cerebellum. Yana da zurfi a cikinmu kuma yana daidai ne a kan kashin mu. Yana kula da ayyukanmu mafi mahimmanci irin su ƙwaƙwalwar zuciya, yanayin jiki, karfin jini, numfashi da daidaitawa. Har ila yau, yana taimaka wajen daidaitawa tare da sauran 'kwakwalwa' a cikinmu. Kwararren kwakwalwa yana da amintacce amma yana da tsantsar da karfi.

Brain Brain. Ana kuma kira shi Brain

Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwayar cuta ta sarrafa tsarin jiki na jiki. An ci gaba ne a cikin shekaru 250 miliyan da suka wuce tare da juyin halitta na dabbobi masu farawa. Zai iya rikodin bayanan tunanin halayen da ya samar da abubuwan da suka dace da abin da ba daidai ba, saboda haka yana da alhakin abin da ake kira 'motsin zuciyar' a cikin 'yan adam. Wannan shi ne ɓangare na kwakwalwa inda muke fada cikin ƙauna, kuma muna tare da wasu. Wannan shine ainihin tsarin yardar rai ko tsarin sakamako a cikin mutane. Dabbobi masu shayarwa, gami da mutane, suna buƙatar kula da theira youngan su na ɗan lokaci kafin su shirya su bar 'gida' kuma su kula da kansu. Wannan ba kamar yawancin dabbobi masu rarrafe ba ne wadanda kawai suke fasa kwai da kuma tsinkewa.

Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa shine wurin zama na bangaskiya da darajar shari'ar da muke samarwa, sau da yawa ba tare da saninsa ba, cewa yana da tasiri sosai game da halinmu.

Amygdala

Ka'idodin tsarin yana dauke da sassa guda shida - maganin thalamus, hypothalamus, gland, da amygdala, hippocampus, tsakiya accumbens da VTA. Ga abin da suke yi.

The thalamus ne mai sarrafa katin kwakwalwa. Duk wani bayanin sirri (sai dai wari) wanda ya zo cikin jikinmu ya fara zuwa farkon mu na farko kuma thalamus ya aika da bayanin zuwa sassa na kwakwalwar mu don sarrafawa.

The hypothalamus shi ne girman ƙwan zuma kofi amma yana iya kasancewa muhimmin tsari a kwakwalwar mu. Yana da hannu wajen sarrafa ƙishirwa; yunwa; motsin zuciyarmu, yanayin jiki; haɗarin jima'i, circadian (barci) rhythms da kuma tsarin kula da jiki da kuma endocrin (hormone) tsarin. Bugu da ƙari kuma, yana sarrafa glandar gwaninta.

The pituitary galibi ana kiransa da 'master gland', saboda yana samar da homonon da ke sarrafa da yawa daga sauran endocrine ko gland hormone. Yana haifar da haɓakar girma, homonin balaga, hormone mai motsa motsa jiki, prolactin da adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, wanda ke motsa haɓakar adrenal stress, cortisol). Hakanan yana sanya hormone mai daidaita ruwa wanda ake kira anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).

The amygdala yana ɗaukar wasu matakan sarrafa ƙwaƙwalwa, amma ga mafi yawan ɓangarorin suna ɗaukar motsin zuciyarmu kamar tsoro, fushi da hassada. Anan akwai gajeren bidiyon ta Farfesa Joseph Ledoux daya daga cikin shahararrun masu bincike kan amygdala.

The hippocampus yana cikin aikin ƙwaƙwalwa. Wannan ɓangare na kwakwalwa yana da mahimmanci ga ilmantarwa da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, don canza ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya zuwa ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, da kuma tunawa da dangantaka tsakanin sararin samaniya a duniya game da mu

The Mahimman Accumbens yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin kyauta. Ayyukanta sun kasance suna jagoranci ne a kan manyan ƙananan maɓuɓɓuka guda biyu: dopamine wanda ke inganta sha'awa da kuma tsammanin jin daɗi, kuma serotonin wanda tasirinsa ya hada da koshi da hanawa. Yawancin nazarin dabba da yawa sun nuna kwayoyi gabaɗaya suna haɓaka samar da dopamine a cikin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, yayin rage hakan serotonin. Amma ginshiƙan accumbens ba ya aiki a ware. Yana kula da dangantaka mai zurfi tare da wasu cibiyoyin da suka shafi abubuwan da suke so, kuma musamman, tare da ƙananan yanki na yanki, wanda aka kira shi VTA.

Da yake a tsakiyar kwakwalwa, a saman kwakwalwa yana da tushe, VTA yana ɗaya daga cikin ƙananan sassa na kwakwalwa. Sannan ne ƙananan ƙarancin VTA da ke sa dopamine, wanda ma'anar su ke aikawa zuwa ƙofar tsakiya. VTA kuma rinjayen endorphins ne waɗanda masu karbarta suke amfani da su ta hanyar maganin kwayoyi irin su heroin da morphine.

A Neocortex / cerebral bawo. An kuma kira shi Brain Neomammalian

Wannan shi ne sabon 'kwakwalwa' ya fara. Ƙungiyar zafin jiki ta raba zuwa yankunan da ke kula da wasu ayyuka. Yankunan daban-daban suna sarrafa bayanai daga hankulanmu, yana ba mu damar ganin, ji, ji, da kuma dandano. Sashin gaban ɓangaren kwakwalwa, magungunan gaba ko goshi, shine cibiyar tunani na kwakwalwa; yana ƙarfafa ikonmu na tunani, shirya, magance matsalolin, yin motsa jiki da yin yanke shawara.

Da farko neocortex ya dauki muhimmanci a cikin primates kuma ya ƙare a cikin kwakwalwar mutum tare da manyan biyu ciwon kwayar cuta wanda ke taka muhimmiyar rawa. Wadannan ɗayan suna da alhakin bunƙasa harshen ɗan adam (c 15,000-70,000 shekaru da suka wuce), tunani mai zurfi, tunani da sani. Neocortex ne mai sauƙi kuma yana da iyakacin ƙwarewar ilmantarwa. Wannan neocortex ne ya sa al'adun mutane su bunkasa.

Mafi yawan ɓangaren na neocortex ya tashi shine kodin farko wanda ya ci gaba game da 500,000 shekaru da suka wuce. Ana kiran shi da kwakwalwa mai kwakwalwa. Wannan yana ba mu hanyoyin da za mu iya sarrafawa, tsarawa, sani, tunani mai kyau, sani, da harshe. Har ila yau, yana hul] a da makomar gaba, dabarun da tunanin tunani da halin kirki. Yana da 'tunani' na tsofaffiyar kwakwalwa ta farko kuma ya ba mu damar hanawa ko sanya damuwa a kan rashin lahani. Wannan sabon ɓangare na kwakwalwa shine bangare wanda har yanzu yana aiki a lokacin samari.

Brain haɗin gwiwa

Wadannan ɓangarori uku na kwakwalwa, da Reptilian, Limbic da Neocortex, ba su aiki ba tare da juna ba. Sun kafa alamar haɗin kai ta hanyar da suke rinjayar juna. Hanyoyin hanyoyi daga hanya masu tsauraran zuwa ga bala'i, suna da kyau sosai.

Hakanan motsin zuciyarmu yana da karfi sosai kuma yana fitar da mu daga matakin ƙwarewa. Halin halayen wani abu ne wanda ya faru da mu fiye da wani abu da muke yanke shawara don faruwa. Mafi yawan bayani game da wannan rashin kulawa akan motsin zuciyar mu yana cikin hanyar da kwakwalwar mutum ta haɗu.

Abokanmu sun samo asali ne a irin wannan hanyar da suke da haɗin sadarwa da yawa daga tsarin tunanin su ga tsarin da muke ciki (wurin kula da hankali) fiye da sauran hanya. A wasu kalmomi, muryar dukkanin zirga-zirgar hawa a kan babbar hanya mai sauri da ke gudana daga tsarin gurguntaccen abu zuwa ga maiwo zai iya nutsar da sautunan da ya fi dacewa a kan ƙananan hanya mai laushi a cikin wata hanya.

Kwayar kwakwalwa ta canzawa ta hanyar jaraba ya haɗa da ƙyamar launin toka (ƙwayoyin sutura) a cikin ƙwayar cuta ta farko a cikin tsarin da ake kira 'hypofrontality'. Wannan yana rage sakonni na hana hadewa zuwa kwakwalwar ƙwallon ƙafa wanda ya sa ya zama ba zai yiwu ba don kauce wa halin da yanzu ya zama mawuyaci da kuma tilas.

Koyo yadda za a karfafa gwargwadon baya, kuma tare da shi karfin kanmu, shine kwarewar rayuwa da kuma tushen nasara a rayuwa. Zuciyar da ba ta da hankali ko kwakwalwar da ba ta da hankali ta hanyar jarabawa zai iya cim ma kadan.

Neuroplasticity >>

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