#Consent ne ... a fili bayyana a cikin doka

Tsayawa cikin shiru a lokacin fyade na iya zama shaida na yarda

adminaccount888 Bugawa News, The Law

Rahotanni na kwanan nan a Ingila inda 'yan sanda da CPS suka kasa bayar da shaida akan yarda da aka bayyana a cikin labaran watsa labarun ya sanya haske a kan CPS da kuma' yan sanda a lokuta masu fyade. Kafin duba sabon bayanai, a nan akwai wasu bayanan bayanan don sanya shi cikin mahallin.

Yin aiki a cikin jama'a, Hukumomin Shari'a (CPS) ya zama daidai ga bangarori biyu: ga wanda ake tuhuma, mutumin da ake zargi da laifin fyade, da wanda ake tuhuma. Dole ne a tabbatar da cewa: i) an aikata laifi kuma ii) wanda ake zargi, aikata shi. Don yanke shawara idan wani ƙararrakin ya kamata ya yi gwaji, CPS zai fara tambayar idan yana da sha'awar jama'a don yin haka kuma sai ku yanke shawara idan akwai isasshen shaida (yawa) da kuma tabbaci (inganci) na shaidar duka abubuwa biyu ) da ii). To sai dai ga juriya a cikin jarabawar fyade don yanke shawara game da hujjoji / shaidar da aka ji daga bangarorin biyu, tare da jagorancin mai shari'a a kan doka, idan wanda ake tuhuma yana da laifi ba tare da shakkar shakka game da laifin da aka bayyana ba, ko a'a.

CPS ya tashi shiryarwa game da fyade da laifin jima'i. Ya haɗa da abin da ya ƙunshi "m imani da izinin".

"Yankan shawara idan wani imani ya dace ya kamata a ƙaddara game da duk abubuwan da suka faru, ciki har da kowane matakai (A) da aka ɗauka don gano ko (B) yarda (sashi (2) na sassan 1-4). Zai yiwu wannan zai hada da halayen wanda ake tuhuma, irin su nakasa ko matasan matasa, amma ba idan (s) yana da kowane nau'i ba.

... Wanda ake tuhuma (A) yana da alhakin tabbatar da cewa (B) ya yarda da jima'i a lokacin da ake tambaya. Zai zama mahimmanci ga 'yan sanda su tambayi mai laifin a tambayoyi game da matakan da ya ɗauka domin ya gamsu da kansa cewa mai karar ya yarda don ya nuna halin tunaninta a wannan lokacin.

Gwajin gwagwarmaya ta dace shine gwaji ta gwaji tare da maƙasudin haƙiƙa. Hanya mafi kyau ta magance wannan batu ita ce tambayi tambayoyi biyu:

  1. Shin wanda ake zargi ya yi imanin cewa mai tuhuma ya yarda? Wannan ya danganta da kwarewar kansa don kimanta yarda (jigidar gwaji).
  2. Idan haka ne, wanda wanda ake zargi ya yarda da shi? Za a yi wa masu juriya su yanke shawarar idan bangaskiyarta ta kasance daidai (asali).

Ga rahoton nan (wanda ya dace daga Scottish Legal News) wanda ke haskakawa game da ci gaban da aka samu a kwanan nan a fahimtar yarda game da yardar da ake samu a cikin fursunoni a Ingila & Wales.

The Daraktan Harkokin Kasuwanci (DPP) a Ingila da Wales, Alison Saunders (hoto) ya ce ba shiru a lokacin yunkurin fyade na iya zama shaida na yarda. Ta ce wanda ake tuhuma zai iya samun "kyakkyawan imani" cewa mai neman ya yarda idan sun kasance shiru.

Har ila yau, ta ce CPS ya zama "kariya" a bangarorin biyu, wanda aka saba fahimta da kasancewa daya daga cikin ayyukan mai gabatar da kara, a yayin da aka yi la'akari da manyan laifuffuka hudu, ya gurfanar da laifuka, wanda ya haifar da tambaya game da ayyukan da lauyoyi da 'yan sanda.

Ms Saunders ya ce akwai matsala guda biyu don magance zargin fyade. Na farko, suna kallon damar da mai neman ya amince da shi, kuma na biyu, ko da wanda ake tuhuma yana da gaskiyar imani akwai yarda.

Ta gaya wa maraice Standard: "Saboda haka a wasu lokuta za ka ga dalilin da yasa, ko da yake mai tuhuma yana iya zaton an fyade su, an yi imani da cewa sun yarda, ko dai ta hanyar shiru ko ta hanyar wasu ayyuka ko duk abin da.

"Mu ba a can ba kawai don iya gabatar da kararrakin inda aka yi laifi, amma har ma ba za a gurfanar da shari'ar ba inda ba a isasshen shaida ba."

DPP ya kara da cewa: "Ba mu taba yin mummunar ba idan wani ya ce an fyade su ko dai suna so su fyade fyade sai ya isa."

A CPS ' Code ga masu daukan kararen Crown, hukuncin 4.2 ya ce: "A mafi yawan lokuta, masu gabatar da kara sun yanke hukuncin ko za su gabatar da laifuka bayan an gudanar da bincike kuma bayan an sake nazarin bayanan."

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