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'Halayyar Jima'i Mai Haɗu' wacce Aka Classira a matsayin Cutar Lafiyar Hauka ta Healthungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya

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Da ke ƙasa akwai wasu bayanan da suka dace don 'yan jarida da kuma jama'a game da sabon tsarin bincike. A nan ne taƙaitaccen taƙaitawa a cikin blog.

A ranar 18 ga Yuni 2018, marubutan Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya na Rarraba Cututtuka na Duniya, 11th Gyarawa, fitar da sanarwar manema labarai da ke sanar da cewa yanzu ana samun tsarin aiwatar da ICD-11 mai zuwa a kan layi. Ya haɗa da Rashin Haɗarin ualarfafa Jima'i (CSBD) a karon farko. Duk da wasu jita-jita masu yaudara da akasin haka, ba gaskiya ba ne cewa WHO ta ƙi "jarabar batsa" ko "jarabar jima'i"

An kira halayen jima'i mai haɗari da sunaye da yawa a tsawon shekaru: "liwadi", "jarabar batsa", "jarabar jima'i", "halin-da-iko da jima'i" da sauransu. A cikin sabon kundin bayanai game da cututtuka WHO ta ɗauki mataki don halatta cutar ta hanyar yarda da "Cutar Haɗarin Jima'i Mai Haɓaka" (CSBD) a matsayin cutar tabin hankali. A cewar masanin WHO, Geoffrey Reed, sabon binciken na CSBD "ya sanar da mutane cewa suna da" yanayi na gaske "kuma suna iya neman magani."

  • Ana iya ganin sakin labaran kan shafin WHO nan. Don saukakawa, mun sake buga shi a cikin ƙasa.
  • Rahoton watsa labarai na ICD-11 ya ambaci adadin wasan kwaikwayon a matsayin rashin lafiyar lafiyar tunanin mutum, da kuma yadda ake rarraba rikice-rikice na jinsi.
  • Yana aikata ba ambaci ba wani sabon ganewar asali: "Harkokin halayen jima'i mai tsanani"Wanda ya bayyana a cikin" Harkokin cuta na rashin ƙarfi ".
  • The "Bayanan Ɗauki”A karkashin kowane ganewar asali sun hada da wannan bayani: "Tsarin code na ICD-11 MMS ya zama daidaituwa."
  • Ga ƙarshen rubutun "Lalata zubar da halayen jima'i" ganewar asali:

Ƙungiyar Harkokin Lafiyar Harkokin Jima'i ta Ƙarƙashin Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya

ganewar asali

Rashin haɓakar halayen jima'i [6C72], a karshe ya bada likitoci na kiwon lafiya wani samfurin, bayyanar ganewa na rashin tabbas ga rashin ikon yin jima'i ba tare da sakamako mai kyau ba. Yin aiwatar da sababbin ka'idoji ya bambanta a ko'ina, amma abu mai mahimmanci shi ne, masana kimiyya na duniya sun yarda cewa halayen halayen jima'i ya cancanci ganewa. Wannan kalma ce mai ladabi wanda za a iya amfani dashi ga duk wanda ya hadu da ka'idoji. "Harkokin jima'i mai haɗari" an "maimaita azabar jima'i ko jima'i" a cewar masanin ilimin kimiyya Jon E. Grant, JD, MD, MPH a cikin Current Psychiatry (Fabrairu 2018: p.3). Za a iya amfani da sabon ƙididdigar CSBD don tantance waɗanda suke da alamun batsa masu amfani da hotuna ta yanar gizo.

Fiye da 80% na mutanen da ke halayyar jima'i suna nuna yawan batsa masu amfani da batsa.

"Amfani da batsa ta batsa na iya wakiltar wata alama ta bayyana ta liwadi (wanda kuma ake magana a kai kamar tilasta jima'i, jarabar jima'i ko halayyar jima'i a cikin adabi - Kafka, 2010; Karila et al., 2014; Wéry & Billieux, 2017) saboda a cikin karatu da yawa fiye da 80% na mutanen da ke yin luwadi sun ba da rahoton yin amfani da batsa mai yawa / matsala (Kafka, 2010; Reid et al., 2012) ”. (Kuma et al. 2018: 2)

Bincike manuals kamar WHO Kayan Kayan Ƙasa na Duniya (ICD-11) da kuma Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Mutanen Amirka Bincike da kuma Bayanan Bayanan Tsaro na Lafiya (DSM-5) kar ka lakafta yanayin lafiyar hankali kamar ““ari” da se. Sun fi son yin amfani da kalmar “cuta”.

Halin "halayen halayen zina" ya samo asali ne daga rashin nasarar sarrafa mummunan zinare ko jima'i, wanda ya haifar da halayen jima'i na tsawon lokaci (misali, 6 watanni ko fiye).

Yin Harkokin Harkokin Jima'i Mai Haɗakarwa

Masu sukar farko sun damu da cewa duk wani bincike na yau da kullun za a yi amfani da shi don lalata tsirarun tsirarun mata da sauran hanyoyin yin jima'i. Koyaya, don saduwa da ka'idojin bincike don CSBD, halayyar matsala dole ne ta haifar da ci gaba mai nuna damuwa ko rashin ƙarfi a cikin na sirri, iyali, zamantakewa, ilimi, sana'a, ko wasu mahimman wurare na aiki. A wasu kalmomin, sabon ganewar asali ba ya bincikar marasa lafiya bisa ga abin da halayyar jima'i da suka shiga cikin jima'i. Yana bincikar marasa lafiya bisa ga rashin daidaito da wahala. Idan halayen jima'i, ko wane irin tsari, ba zai haifar ba, sababbin ƙididdigar ba za a yi amfani ba.

Sauran masu sukar sunyi gargadin cewa samfurin CSBD zai iya haifar da ganewar ganewa ta hanyar marasa lafiya wanda hali bai kasance ba, hakikanin gaskiya ne, wanda kuma wahala ta kasance saboda hukunci mai kyau ta hanyar haƙuri ko kwararren. Don hana irin wannan sakamakon, sabon ƙididdigar ke ba da wannan, "Tsarin da ke da alaka da hukunce-hukuncen dabi'u da rashin amincewa game da sha'awace-sha'awace, matsalolin, ko halayen mutum ba su ishe ba." A wasu kalmomi, mai haƙuri dole ne ya kasa ikon sarrafa motsin jiki kuma ya kasance yin jima'i da jima'i wanda ya zama matsala.

Muhawara kan Littattafan Bincike

An yi ta muhawara sosai a cikin jagorancin harkar littafin sabon ICI-11. Rashin haɓakar halayen jima'i (wanda ake magana da shi a matsayin aikin haɗin kai na mace) an dauke su ne a cikin DSM-5 amma an cire shi. A cewar masanan sunyi bincike, "Wannan hani ya hana yin rigakafi, binciken, da kuma maganin kulawa, da kuma likitocin da suka bar su ba tare da ganewar asali ba saboda rashin halayyar halayen halayen jima'i." (Potenza et al. 2017)

A yanzu, nau'in iyaye na sabon ƙaddarwar CSBD shine ƙwayoyin cuta na Rashin Jigaba, wanda ya haɗa da bincikar kamuwa da cutar irin su Pyromania [6C70], Kleptomania [6C71] da Cigabawar Cutar Dama (6C73). Duk da haka shakku sun kasance game da tsari nagari. Kamar yadda Yale neuroscientist Marc Potenza MD PhD da Mateusz Gola PhD, mai bincike a Cibiyar Ilimin Kimiyya na Poland da Jami'ar California San Diego ya nuna cewa, "Samun da ake yi na yaudarar cutar CSB a matsayin rikici-rikice-rikicen rikice-rikicen abu ne mai rikitarwa kamar yadda wasu samfurori sun kasance samarwa ... Akwai bayanan da ke bayar da shawarar cewa CSB ta ba da dama da fasaha tare da jaraba. "(Kraus et al 2018)

Zai iya zama abin lura cewa ICD-11 ya haɗa da bincikar cuta na Caca a ƙarƙashin rikice-rikice guda biyu Saboda halayen Nishaɗi da underarƙashin Rarraba Rarraba Rarraba. Don haka, rarrabuwa cikin cuta ba lallai ne ya kasance yana kasancewa da juna ba (Kuma et al. 2018: 2). Hakanan rarrabuwa na iya canzawa tare da lokaci. Cutar Caca ta asali an lasafta ta a matsayin cuta ta motsawa a cikin duka DSM-IV da ICD-10, amma dangane da ci gaba a cikin fahimtar fahimta, An sake rarraba Cutar Cutar a matsayin "Cutar da ke da Alaƙa da Addarfafawa" (DSM-5) da wani "Rashin Lafiya saboda toabi'ar icari" (ICD-11). Zai yuwu wannan sabon binciken na CSBD na iya bin irin wannan tafarki na ci gaba kamar yadda Cutar Caca take da shi.

Duk da yadda irin wannan tattaunawa ta faru a tsawon lokaci, yadda CSBD ya ƙunshe a cikin ICD-11 na yanzu ya ba da sanarwa kuma ya kamata a fahimci cewa akwai mutanen da suke bukatar buƙatar maganin ƙwaƙwalwar asibiti don taimaka musu wajen magance halayen jima'i da sakamakon. Har ila yau, za ta sauƙaƙe binciken da ake bukata a nan gaba a kan matsalolin jima'i.

“Zai dace idan aka yi la’akari da yadda DSM da Classasashen Classasa na Cututtuka (ICD) suke aiki dangane da ma’anoni da tsarin rabe-raben. A yin haka, muna tsammanin ya dace mu mai da hankali kan matsalar caca (wanda aka fi sani da caca), da kuma yadda aka yi la'akari da shi a cikin DSM-IV da DSM-5 (da ICD-10 da ICD-11 mai zuwa). A cikin DSM-IV, an rarraba caca ta hanyar cuta a matsayin "Impaddamarwar Rigakafin Cutar Ba a Classididdigar Wasu wurare ba." A cikin DSM-5, an sake sanya shi a matsayin "Cutar da ke Alaƙa da Cutar." Ic. "Irin wannan tsarin ya kamata a yi amfani da shi ga CSB, wanda a halin yanzu ake tunanin sanya shi a matsayin cuta mai rikitar da hankali a cikin ICD-11 (Grant et al., 2014; Kraus et al., 2018) ". An cire waɗannan alamun daga Gola da Potenza 2018.

Jiyya

A cikin farkawa daga World Health Organization (WHO) ke rarraba matsalar wasan kwaikwayon da CSBD a matsayin yanayin kiwon lafiya, a rahoton a cikin Guardian jarida ya bayyana cewa, asibiti a London yana shirye-shiryen kaddamar da cibiyar jin dadin yanar gizo ta asibiti a cikin gida don matasa da kuma manya. Maganin masu jima'i a wasu wurare sun ga karuwa a cikin matasa masu amfani da suke amfani dasu ta hanyar amfani da ka'idodin jima'i da ɗakunan shafukan intanit, kuma suna fama da matsalolin lafiyar tunanin mutum.

A cewar Mateusz Gola PhD, mai bincike a Cibiyar Ilimin Kimiyya ta Poland da kuma Jami'ar California San Diego, sabon ƙwarewar CSBD yana da sauran amfani. "Ya fitar da cikakkun bayanai. Bugu da ƙari, likitoci na likita da kuma likita a cikin horarwa za su bincika wannan cuta. Ba tare da samfurin CSBD ba, yawancin likitoci ba su sani ba game da matsalolin halayen jima'i. A ƙarshe, wannan ganewar asali zai iya ba da ƙarin marasa lafiya zuwa ga maganin inshora. "Gola ya kara da cewa, sabon ƙwarewar," bai magance matsalar yadda za a bi da CSBD ba, amma yana ba da dama don ƙarin nazarin, wanda zai iya haifar da daidaitattun al'amurran da suka dace. "

Ƙarin Ruwa ga Masanan

Shane W. Kraus, Ph.D. Mataimakin farfesa a likitan kwakwalwa kuma Daraktan Asibitin Tattaunawa na havabi'a a Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Jami'ar Massachusetts Medical School ya ce game da sabon rukunin bincike: "Wannan kyakkyawan matakin farko ne. Hada CSBD a cikin ICD-11 na iya ƙara samun damar kulawa da marasa lafiya (na duniya da cikin Amurka). Bugu da kari, hadawa zai kuma kara yawan kudaden bincike wanda ya kasance yana mai da hankali ne kan tarihin rashin lafiyar kwakwalwa. Bugu da kari, ina ganin zai rage kyama ga wadanda abin ya shafa da kuma kara samar da ilimi mai bayarwa kan lamarin. ”

Horar da Ma'aikatan Lafiya

Dalilin da aka yi na kwanan nan na ICD-11 na kwanan nan shi ne ya ba da izinin kasashe su horar da kwararrun likitoci a kan alamun binciken. Masu bincike kuma sun bukaci cewa likitocin da masu ba da shawara za su horar da su kuma su fahimci halin jima'i mai karfi:

“Har ila yau, yana da mahimmanci masu ba da kulawa (watau, likitoci da masu ba da shawara) wanda mutane za su iya neman taimako daga gare su sun saba da CSBs. A lokacin karatunmu da ya shafi batutuwa sama da 3,000 da ke neman magani ga CSB, mun sha jin cewa mutane da ke fama da CSB suna fuskantar matsaloli da yawa yayin neman taimako ko kuma tuntuɓar likitoci (Dhuffar & Griffiths, 2016). Magunguna sunyi rahoton cewa ƙwararrun likitoci zasu iya guje wa batun, sun bayyana cewa irin wannan matsalolin ba su wanzu, ko suna cewa mutum yana da kullun jima'i, kuma ya yarda da ita maimakon yin zalunta (duk da cewa ga waɗannan mutane, CSBs na iya jin dadi-dystonic da jagora zuwa sakamako mai yawa). Mun yi imani da cewa ka'idoji na daidaitawa na CSB zai inganta aikin ilmantarwa ciki har da ci gaba da shirye-shiryen horarwa game da yadda za a tantance da kuma bi da mutane tare da alamun cutar CSB. Muna fata cewa irin wannan shirye-shirye zai zama wani ɓangare na horo na asibiti don masu ilimin likita, likitoci, da kuma sauran masu samar da kulawa da lafiyar hankali, da kuma sauran masu kula da su ciki har da masu kula da kulawa na farko, kamar su likitoci na general. "(Kraus et al 2018)

Gidauniyar Taimako

The Fuskar Abinci wata ƙungiyar sadaukarwa ce ta farko wacce ke ba da ilimin jima’i da soyayya ga yawancin masu sauraro. Abinda muke mayar da hankali shine akan tasirin batsa na intanet akan matasa da matasa. Kwalejin Royal ta General Practitioners da ke London ta amince da mu don gudanar da bita ta kwana 1 don ƙwararru kan tasirin batsa na intanet kan lafiyar hankali da ta jiki. Wannan yana goyan bayan manufofin Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya wanda sanarwar manema labaranta da ke ƙasa ta jaddada bukatar horo tsakanin kwararru. Har ila yau, muna koyarwa a makarantu kuma za mu ba da shirye-shiryen darasi da horo ga malamai a ƙarshen wannan shekarar. Muna ba da sabis na shawarwari ga ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke son ci gaba da shirye-shiryen wayar da kai game da cutar da cutar.

Don tambayoyi ko ƙarin bayani ciki har da cikakkun kwafi na asali da aka ambata, tuntuɓi info@rewardfoundation.org.

FOOTTOTE

Cikakken rubutu na ICD-11 Press Release.

WHO ta kaddamar da sabon cututtukan cututtukan kasa da kasa (ICD 11) 18 Yuni 2018 News Release Geneva

Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta yaudare sabon sabbin ƙwayoyin cuta na duniya (ICD-11).

ICD shine tushe don gano yanayin kiwon lafiya da ƙididdiga a duk duniya, kuma yana ƙunshe da kusan lambobi 55 000 na musamman don raunin da ya faru, cututtuka da musabbabin mutuwa. Yana bayar da yare na yau da kullun wanda ke bawa masana kiwon lafiya damar raba bayanan lafiya a duk faɗin duniya.

"ICD ita ce samfurin da WHO ke nunawa sosai," in ji Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Darakta Janar na WHO. "Yana ba mu damar fahimtar abubuwa da yawa game da abin da ke sa mutane su yi rashin lafiya kuma su mutu, kuma su dauki mataki don hana wahala da kuma adana rayuka."

ICD-11, wanda ya fi shekaru goma ana yin sa, yana ba da ingantaccen ci gaba akan sifofin da suka gabata. A karo na farko, lantarki ne gabaɗaya kuma yana da tsari mai ƙawancen mai amfani da yawa. Kuma an sami irin sa hannun da ba a taba gani ba na ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya wadanda suka shiga tarurrukan hadin gwiwa da gabatar da shawarwari. Theungiyar ICD a hedkwatar WHO ta karɓi shawarwari sama da 10 000 don yin bita.

An gabatar da ICD-11 a Majalisar Dokokin Lafiya ta Duniya a watan Mayu 2019 don tallafawa ta Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyar, kuma za ta shiga cikin 1 Janairu 2022. Wannan saki ne samfurin gaba ne wanda zai ba da damar kasashe don tsara yadda za a yi amfani da sabon fasalin, shirya fassarori, da kuma horar da kwararrun likitoci a duk faɗin ƙasar.

Hakan na amfani da ICD ne daga masu sayen lafiyar jiki wanda ƙimar kuɗi ta dogara ne akan coding ICD; masu kula da harkokin kiwon lafiya na kasa; datattun tarin bayanai; da sauransu waɗanda ke biye da ci gaba a kiwon lafiya na duniya da kuma ƙayyade kayan aikin kiwon lafiya.

Sabon ICD-11 yana nuna cigaban ci gaba a magani da cigaba a fahimtar kimiyya. Alal misali, lambobin da suka danganci juriya na antimicrobial sun fi dacewa da tsarin Gidan Lantarki na Antimicrobial Resistance System (GLASS). ICD-11 yana iya samun ƙarin bayanai game da aminci a cikin kiwon lafiya, wanda ke nufin cewa abubuwan da ba dole ba ne wanda zai cutar da lafiyar - irin su rashin aiki mara lafiya a asibitoci - za'a iya ganewa kuma rage.

Sabuwar ICD ta ƙunshi sababbin surori, daya a kan maganin gargajiya: ko da yake miliyoyin mutane suna amfani da maganin gargajiya a dukan duniya, ba a ƙayyade shi a cikin wannan tsarin ba. Wani sabon babi game da lafiyar jima'i ya haɗu da yanayin da aka ƙayyade a wasu hanyoyi (misali an lalata jinsi a cikin yanayin kiwon lafiya) ko aka kwatanta daban. An ƙaddamar da matsalar tarawa a cikin ɓangaren da ke cikin rikici.

"Babban mahimmanci a cikin wannan sabunta shine sauƙaƙa tsarin tsari da kayan aiki na lantarki - wannan zai ba da damar likitoci na kiwon lafiya su zama cikakkun bayanai da sauƙi," in ji Dr Robert Jakob, Jagoran Rundunar, Masarrafan Ƙididdiga da Tsarin Ɗaukaka, WHO.

Dr Lubna Alansari, Mataimakin Mataimakin Daraktan Hukumar Kula da Lafiya ta Duniya, ya ce: "ICD ita ce ginshiƙan bayanin kiwon lafiyar kuma ICD-11 za ta ba da ra'ayi na yau da kullum game da alamun cutar."

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