Hoto Hotuna na Hotuna a kan wayar

'Ƙarƙashin Ƙarƙashin Jima'i' da aka ƙaddara a matsayin Sanarwar Lafiya ta Lafiya ta Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya

adminaccount888 Bugawa News

Da ke ƙasa akwai wasu bayanan da suka dace don 'yan jarida da kuma jama'a game da sabon tsarin bincike. A nan ne taƙaitaccen taƙaitawa a cikin blog.

A ranar 18th Yuni 2018, Mawallafin Ma'aikatan Lafiya ta Duniya na Kayan Ƙasar Kasuwancin Duniya, 11th Saukewa, fitar da sakin labaran da aka sanar da cewa tsarin aiwatar da ICD-11 na zuwa yanzu yana samuwa a kan layi. Ya haɗu da Harkokin Cutar Jima'i mai tsanani (CSBD) a karon farko. Duk da wasu jita-jita masu janyo hankulan sabanin haka, ba gaskiya ba ne cewa WHO ta ƙi "zina bane" ko "jima'i jima'i".

An kira mahaukaci mai yawa a cikin shekaru masu yawa: "liyafar", "jima'i na batsa", "jima'i da jima'i", "dabi'un jima'i" da sauransu. A cikin sabon cututtuka na cututtuka WHO ta dauki mataki don ƙaddamar da matsalar ta hanyar yarda da "Ciwon Haɗar Jima'i Mai Haɗari" (CSBD) a matsayin rashin lafiya. A cewar masana'antun WHO, Geoffrey Reed, sabon bincike na CSBD "ya sa mutane su san suna da" yanayin gaske "kuma suna iya neman magani."

  • Ana iya ganin sakin labaran kan shafin WHO nan. Don saukakawa, mun sake buga shi a cikin ƙasa.
  • Rahoton watsa labarai na ICD-11 ya ambaci adadin wasan kwaikwayon a matsayin rashin lafiyar lafiyar tunanin mutum, da kuma yadda ake rarraba rikice-rikice na jinsi.
  • Yana aikata ba ambaci ba wani sabon ganewar asali: "Harkokin halayen jima'i mai tsanani"Wanda ya bayyana a cikin" Harkokin cuta na rashin ƙarfi ".
  • The "Bayanan Ɗauki"A karkashin kowace ganewar asali sun hada da wannan sanarwa: "Tsarin code na ICD-11 MMS ya zama daidaituwa."
  • Ga ƙarshen rubutun "Lalata zubar da halayen jima'i" ganewar asali:

Ƙungiyar Harkokin Lafiyar Harkokin Jima'i ta Ƙarƙashin Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya

ganewar asali

Rashin haɓakar halayen jima'i [6C72], a karshe ya bada likitoci na kiwon lafiya wani samfurin, bayyanar ganewa na rashin tabbas ga rashin ikon yin jima'i ba tare da sakamako mai kyau ba. Yin aiwatar da sababbin ka'idoji ya bambanta a ko'ina, amma abu mai mahimmanci shi ne, masana kimiyya na duniya sun yarda cewa halayen halayen jima'i ya cancanci ganewa. Wannan kalma ce mai ladabi wanda za a iya amfani dashi ga duk wanda ya hadu da ka'idoji. "Harkokin jima'i mai haɗari" an "maimaita azabar jima'i ko jima'i" a cewar masanin ilimin kimiyya Jon E. Grant, JD, MD, MPH a cikin Current Psychiatry (Fabrairu 2018: p.3). Za a iya amfani da sabon ƙididdigar CSBD don tantance waɗanda suke da alamun batsa masu amfani da hotuna ta yanar gizo.

Fiye da 80% na mutanen da ke halayyar jima'i suna nuna yawan batsa masu amfani da batsa.

"Abubuwan da za a iya amfani da su a cikin batsa na iya zama alamar bayyanar da zahirinci (wanda ake magana da ita azabar jima'i, jima'i ko jima'i a cikin wallafe-wallafe - Kafka, 2010; Karila et al., 2014; Wéry & Billieux, 2017) saboda a cikin nazarin da yawa fiye da 80% na mutanen da ke da jima'i sun ruwaito rashin amfani da batsa masu yawa (Kafka, 2010; Reid et al., 2012) ". (Kuma et al. 2018: 2)

Bincike manuals kamar WHO Kayan Kayan Ƙasa na Duniya (ICD-11) da kuma Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Mutanen Amirka Bincike da kuma Bayanan Bayanan Tsaro na Lafiya (DSM-5) kar ka lakabi na yanayin kiwon lafiyar jiki kamar "Addictions" ta hanyar. Sun fi so su yi amfani da kalmar nan "Ciwo."

Halin "halayen halayen zina" ya samo asali ne daga rashin nasarar sarrafa mummunan zinare ko jima'i, wanda ya haifar da halayen jima'i na tsawon lokaci (misali, 6 watanni ko fiye).

Yin Harkokin Harkokin Jima'i Mai Haɗakarwa

Masu saran farko sun damu da cewa za a yi amfani da cikakkun ganewar asali don magance jima'i da 'yan tsirarun jima'i. Duk da haka, don saduwa da ka'idojin bincike na CSBD, matsalar halayen dole ne ya haifar da matsala mai tsanani ko rashin matsala a cikin al'amuran ɗan adam, iyali, zamantakewa, ilimi, sana'a, ko sauran wuraren da suke aiki. A wasu kalmomi, sababbin samfurori ba su tantance marasa lafiya ba abin da halayyar jima'i da suka shiga cikin jima'i. Yana bincikar marasa lafiya bisa ga rashin daidaito da wahala. Idan halayen jima'i, ko wane irin tsari, ba zai haifar ba, sababbin ƙididdigar ba za a yi amfani ba.

Sauran masu sukar sunyi gargadin cewa samfurin CSBD zai iya haifar da ganewar ganewa ta hanyar marasa lafiya wanda hali bai kasance ba, hakikanin gaskiya ne, wanda kuma wahala ta kasance saboda hukunci mai kyau ta hanyar haƙuri ko kwararren. Don hana irin wannan sakamakon, sabon ƙididdigar ke ba da wannan, "Tsarin da ke da alaka da hukunce-hukuncen dabi'u da rashin amincewa game da sha'awace-sha'awace, matsalolin, ko halayen mutum ba su ishe ba." A wasu kalmomi, mai haƙuri dole ne ya kasa ikon sarrafa motsin jiki kuma ya kasance yin jima'i da jima'i wanda ya zama matsala.

Bincike Manuals 'Tattaunawa

An yi ta muhawara sosai a cikin jagorancin harkar littafin sabon ICI-11. Rashin haɓakar halayen jima'i (wanda ake magana da shi a matsayin aikin haɗin kai na mace) an dauke su ne a cikin DSM-5 amma an cire shi. A cewar masanan sunyi bincike, "Wannan hani ya hana yin rigakafi, binciken, da kuma maganin kulawa, da kuma likitocin da suka bar su ba tare da ganewar asali ba saboda rashin halayyar halayen halayen jima'i." (Potenza et al. 2017)

A yanzu, nau'in iyaye na sabon samfurori na CSBD shine ƙwayoyin cuta na Jirgin jini, wanda ya haɗa da bincikar kamuwa da cutar irin su Pyromania [6C70], Kleptomania [6C71] da Cigabawar Cutar Gashi (6C73). Duk da haka shakku sun kasance game da tsari nagari. Kamar yadda Yale neuroscientist Marc Potenza MD PhD da kuma Mateusz Gola PhD, mai bincike a Cibiyar Kimiyya ta Poland da Jami'ar California San Diego ya nuna cewa, "Samun halin yanzu na kirkirar cutar CSB a matsayin rikici-rikice-rikicen rikice-rikice shi ne rikice-rikice kamar yadda wasu samfurori sun kasance samarwa ... Akwai bayanan da ke bayar da shawarar cewa CSB ta ba da dama da fasaha tare da jaraba. "(Kraus et al 2018)

Yana da kyau a lura da cewa ICD-11 ya hada da bincikar cutar ƙwallon ƙafa a ƙarƙashin ƙwayoyin cuta guda biyu saboda abubuwan da ke cike da abincin da ke ƙarƙashin ƙwayoyin cuta. Saboda haka, rarrabawar cuta ba dole ba ne a kowane lokaci ya kasance mai zaman kanta (Kuma et al. 2018: 2). Ƙayyadewa na iya canza tare da lokaci. Cutar Tambaya ta asali ne a matsayin asalin damuwa a cikin DSM-IV da ICD-10, amma bisa ga cigaba a fahimtar fahimtar juna, Ƙungiyar Tambaya ta ƙaddara ta zama "Matakan da ke ciki da ƙari" (DSM-5) da wani "Ciwo saboda Rashin Jiki" (ICD-11). Zai yiwu wannan sabon ƙaddarwar CSBD zai iya bi irin wannan ci gaba kamar yadda Cutar Tambaya ta ke.

Duk da yadda irin wannan tattaunawa ta faru a tsawon lokaci, yadda CSBD ya ƙunshe a cikin ICD-11 na yanzu ya ba da sanarwa kuma ya kamata a fahimci cewa akwai mutanen da suke bukatar buƙatar maganin ƙwaƙwalwar asibiti don taimaka musu wajen magance halayen jima'i da sakamakon. Har ila yau, za ta sauƙaƙe binciken da ake bukata a nan gaba a kan matsalolin jima'i.

"Yana da kyau a yi la'akari da yadda DSM da Ƙungiyar Cutar Kasa ta Duniya (ICD) ke aiki tare da tsarin tafiyarwa da tsarawa. Idan muka yi haka, muna ganin yana da muhimmanci a mayar da hankali kan matsalar caca (wanda aka sani da caca-caca) da kuma yadda aka yi la'akari da DSM-IV da DSM-5 (da kuma ICD-10 da ICD-11 na gaba). A cikin DSM-IV, caca da aka ƙaddara a matsayin "Ƙungiyar Harkokin Jirgin Ƙarƙashin Ba a Kasance Ba a Ƙasashen dabam dabam." A cikin DSM-5, an sake kididdiga shi a matsayin "Matakan da ke ciki da kuma Addictive." .... "Dole ne a yi amfani da irin wannan tsari ga CSB, wadda aka ɗauka a halin yanzu don haɗawa a matsayin cuta mai rikici a ICD-11 (Grant et al., 2014; Kraus et al., 2018) ". An cire waɗannan alamun daga Gola da Potenza 2018.

Jiyya

A cikin farkawa daga World Health Organization (WHO) ke rarraba matsalar wasan kwaikwayon da CSBD a matsayin yanayin kiwon lafiya, a rahoton a cikin Guardian jarida ya bayyana cewa, asibiti a London yana shirye-shiryen kaddamar da cibiyar jin dadin yanar gizo ta asibiti a cikin gida don matasa da kuma manya. Maganin masu jima'i a wasu wurare sun ga karuwa a cikin matasa masu amfani da suke amfani dasu ta hanyar amfani da ka'idodin jima'i da ɗakunan shafukan intanit, kuma suna fama da matsalolin lafiyar tunanin mutum.

A cewar Mateusz Gola PhD, mai bincike a Cibiyar Ilimin Kimiyya ta Poland da kuma Jami'ar California San Diego, sabon ƙwarewar CSBD yana da sauran amfani. "Ya fitar da cikakkun bayanai. Bugu da ƙari, likitoci na likita da kuma likita a cikin horarwa za su bincika wannan cuta. Ba tare da samfurin CSBD ba, yawancin likitoci ba su sani ba game da matsalolin halayen jima'i. A ƙarshe, wannan ganewar asali zai iya ba da ƙarin marasa lafiya zuwa ga maganin inshora. "Gola ya kara da cewa, sabon ƙwarewar," bai magance matsalar yadda za a bi da CSBD ba, amma yana ba da dama don ƙarin nazarin, wanda zai iya haifar da daidaitattun al'amurran da suka dace. "

Ƙarin Ruwa ga Masanan

Shane W. Kraus, Ph.D. Mataimakin Farfesa na Kwararre da Daraktan Cibiyar Binciken Bahavioral a Asibiti Edith Nours Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital, Jami'ar Massachusetts Medical School ya ce game da sabon tsarin bincike: "Wannan abu ne mai kyau na farko. Ciki da CSBD a cikin ICD-11 zai iya samun damar samun kulawa ga marasa lafiya (a duniya da kuma a Amurka). Bugu da kari, hadawa zai kara yawan kudaden binciken da aka ba da labarin tarihi game da rashin lafiyar lafiyar kwakwalwa. Bugu da} ari, ina tsammanin zai rage wa] anda suka kamu da cutar, da kuma} ara yawan ilimi game da al'amarin. "

Horar da Ma'aikatan Lafiya

Dalilin da aka yi na kwanan nan na ICD-11 na kwanan nan shi ne ya ba da izinin kasashe su horar da kwararrun likitoci a kan alamun binciken. Masu bincike kuma sun bukaci cewa likitocin da masu ba da shawara za su horar da su kuma su fahimci halin halayen halayen halayen mata:

"Yana da mahimmanci cewa masu kulawa (watau likitoci da masu ba da shawara) daga wanda mutane zasu iya neman taimakon su san CSBs. A lokacin nazarinmu da aka yi a kan batutuwa 3,000 da ke neman magani ga CSB, mun ji cewa mutane da ke shan wahala daga CSB sun fuskanci matsaloli masu yawa a lokacin neman taimakon su ko kuma tare da likitoci (Dhuffar & Griffiths, 2016). Magunguna sunyi rahoton cewa ƙwararrun likitoci zasu iya guje wa batun, sun bayyana cewa irin wannan matsalolin ba su wanzu, ko suna cewa mutum yana da kullun jima'i, kuma ya yarda da ita maimakon yin zalunta (duk da cewa ga waɗannan mutane, CSBs na iya jin dadi-dystonic da jagora zuwa sakamako mai yawa). Mun yi imani da cewa ka'idoji na daidaitawa na CSB zai inganta aikin ilmantarwa ciki har da ci gaba da shirye-shiryen horarwa game da yadda za a tantance da kuma bi da mutane tare da alamun cutar CSB. Muna fata cewa irin wannan shirye-shirye zai zama wani ɓangare na horo na asibiti don masu ilimin likita, likitoci, da kuma sauran masu samar da kulawa da lafiyar hankali, da kuma sauran masu kula da su ciki har da masu kula da kulawa na farko, kamar su likitoci na general. "(Kraus et al 2018)

Gidauniyar Taimako

The Fuskar Abinci shi ne sadaukarwa na ilimi wanda ya haifar da kimiyyar jima'i da kuma ƙauna ga masu sauraro. Mu mai da hankali ne game da tasirin batsa na intanet kan matasa da matasa. Kwamishinan Kwalejin Kasuwancin Royal na Jami'ar London sun yarda da mu don halartar taron bitar na 1 don masu sana'a game da tasirin batsa na intanet kan lafiyar jiki da ta jiki. Wannan yana goyan bayan manufar Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya wanda sakiyar jarida da ke ƙasa ya jaddada bukatar samun horarwa tsakanin masu sana'a. Har ila yau muna koyarwa a makarantu kuma za mu ba da darussan darussa da horo ga malamai a baya a wannan shekara. Muna bayar da shawarwari ga kungiyoyin da suke so su ci gaba da shirye-shiryen wayar tarho.

Don tambayoyi ko ƙarin bayani ciki har da cikakkun kwafi na asali da aka ambata, tuntuɓi info@rewardfoundation.org.

FOOTTOTE

Cikakken rubutu na ICD-11 Press Release.

WHO ta kaddamar da sabon cututtukan cututtukan kasa da kasa (ICD 11) 18 Yuni 2018 News Release Geneva

Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta yaudare sabon sabbin ƙwayoyin cuta na duniya (ICD-11).

Kwanan ICD shine tushe don gano yanayin kiwon lafiya da kuma kididdiga a duniya, kuma yana dauke da 55 000 ka'idoji na musamman don raunuka, cututtuka da kuma haddasa mutuwa. Yana bayar da harshe na kowa wanda zai ba likitocin kiwon lafiya damar raba bayanin kiwon lafiya a fadin duniya.

"ICD ita ce samfurin da WHO ke nunawa sosai," in ji Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Darakta Janar na WHO. "Yana ba mu damar fahimtar abubuwa da yawa game da abin da ke sa mutane su yi rashin lafiya kuma su mutu, kuma su dauki mataki don hana wahala da kuma adana rayuka."

ICD-11, wanda ya wuce shekaru goma a cikin yin, yana samar da ingantaccen ingantawa a kan sifofin da suka gabata. A karo na farko, yana da matukar lantarki kuma yana da cikakkun tsarin mai amfani. Kuma an yi amfani da wasu ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya da ba su da wata dama da suka shiga taron tarurruka da kuma bada shawarwari. Kungiyar ta ICD a hedkwatar WHO ta karbi bakunan 10 000 don gabatarwa.

An gabatar da ICD-11 a Majalisar Dokokin Lafiya ta Duniya a watan Mayu 2019 don tallafawa ta Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyar, kuma za ta shiga cikin 1 Janairu 2022. Wannan saki ne samfurin gaba ne wanda zai ba da damar kasashe don tsara yadda za a yi amfani da sabon fasalin, shirya fassarori, da kuma horar da kwararrun likitoci a duk faɗin ƙasar.

Hakan na amfani da ICD ne daga masu sayen lafiyar jiki wanda ƙimar kuɗi ta dogara ne akan coding ICD; masu kula da harkokin kiwon lafiya na kasa; datattun tarin bayanai; da sauransu waɗanda ke biye da ci gaba a kiwon lafiya na duniya da kuma ƙayyade kayan aikin kiwon lafiya.

Sabuwar ICD-11 tana nuna cigaban ci gaba a magani da cigaba a fahimtar kimiyya. Alal misali, lambobin da suka danganci juriya na antimicrobial sun fi dacewa da tsarin Gidan Lantarki na Antimicrobial Resistance System (GLASS). ICD-11 yana iya samun ƙarin bayanai game da aminci a cikin kiwon lafiya, wanda ke nufin cewa abubuwan da ba dole ba ne waɗanda zasu cutar da lafiyar - irin su rashin aiki mara lafiya a asibitoci - za'a iya ganewa kuma rage.

Sabuwar ICD ta ƙunshi sababbin surori, daya a kan maganin gargajiya: ko da yake miliyoyin mutane suna amfani da maganin gargajiya a dukan duniya, ba a ƙayyade shi a cikin wannan tsarin ba. Wani sabon babi game da lafiyar jima'i ya haɗu da yanayin da aka ƙayyade a wasu hanyoyi (misali an lalata jinsi a cikin yanayin kiwon lafiya) ko aka kwatanta daban. An ƙaddamar da matsalar tarawa a cikin ɓangaren da ke cikin rikici.

"Babban mahimmanci a cikin wannan sabunta shine sauƙaƙa tsarin tsari da kayan aiki na lantarki - wannan zai ba da damar likitoci na kiwon lafiya su zama cikakkun bayanai da sauƙi," in ji Dr Robert Jakob, Jagoran Rundunar, Masarrafan Ƙididdiga da Tsarin Ɗaukaka, WHO.

Dr Lubna Alansari, Mataimakin Mataimakin Daraktan Hukumar Kula da Lafiya ta Duniya, ya ce: "ICD ita ce ginshiƙan bayanin kiwon lafiyar kuma ICD-11 za ta ba da ra'ayi na yau da kullum game da alamun cutar."

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Share wannan labarin